Cannabis cultivation: everything you need to know

Cannabis-Anbau: Alles was du wissen musst

Niklas Bergmann, M.A.

Biochemiker, Fachautor

Inhaltsverzeichnis: Cannabis cultivation: everything you need to know

Cannabis cultivation is finding more and more fans, and this is not only due to increasing legalization worldwide, but also to a generally more open attitude towards it. Here in Germany and elsewhere, more and more people want to understand how cultivation works - whether for health reasons, for personal use or simply out of curiosity. Quite honestly, the journey from seed to plant is really exciting and offers a lot of opportunities for anyone who wants to get to grips with the basics.

In this article, we summarize everything you need to know about growing cannabis. From A for getting started to Z for ... well, legal conditions. We won't get bogged down in unnecessary technical jargon, but will provide you with practical tips and all the know-how you need to get you off to a well-informed and safe start.

Whether you plan to grow your plants indoors under lamps or watch them grow outdoors in the open air, we have the right knowledge for everyone. Get ready for a tour through the world of cannabis growing, where we'll show you how to be successful from the very first step. So, buckle up, it's going to be an exciting trip!

The basics of cannabis cultivation

If you're thinking about growing cannabis yourself, one of the first decisions you'll need to make is choosing the right strain. Basically, there are three main types of cannabis that every grower should know: Indica, Sativa and Hybrid. Each strain has its own special characteristics, both in terms of growth and effect.

Different cannabis varieties

Indica is the compact type. These plants tend to be short and wide and feel quite at home in cooler climates. If you're looking for something that relaxes you and helps you wind down, you've come to the right place. Indicas flower faster, which makes them ideal for impatient gardeners.

Sativa, on the other hand, likes to stretch upwards and prefers a sunny spot. These strains take their time to flower, but the wait is worth it, especially if you're looking for an energetic, creativity-boosting buzz. Sativas are like a long, good coffee chat with an old friend - invigorating and inspiring.

Hybrids are our intermediaries. Breeders cross indica and sativa to combine the best of both worlds. Here you'll find a colorful palette of effects and growth characteristics, so there's something for everyone. Whether you're looking for a specific high or want to overcome certain growing challenges, you can customize with hybrids.

Choosing a strain is more than just a matter of personal taste. It affects how you plan your grow, from light conditions to patience while waiting for harvest. Think carefully about what you want from your cannabis and how much effort you can and want to put into growing it.

Legal basis in Germany

From April 2024, Germany will experience a significant change in the handling of cannabis. Private cultivation for personal use will become legal - a move that applies to both individual growers and members of growers' associations. This change aims to curb the black market while strengthening consumer protection by creating safe and controlled access to cannabis. For anyone interested in growing cannabis, this means new legal opportunities, but also the need to thoroughly familiarize themselves with the legal requirements.cannabis cultivation guide

Indoor vs. outdoor

When you dive into the world of cannabis cultivation, one of the first decisions you have to make is whether to grow indoors or outdoors: Do you go for indoor or outdoor growing? Both methods have their advantages and challenges.

Indoor cultivation: Here you are the boss of the climate. With the right equipment, you can control the light, temperature and humidity, which can lead to impressive yields. However, the initial investment should not be underestimated - good lighting systems and climate control equipment can be expensive. On the other hand, you are independent of the weather and have less trouble with pests.

Outdoor cultivation: The sun as a free source of light and the natural ecosystem as support - it sounds tempting and often is. Outdoor growing can be more cost-effective, but it also comes with risks. Unpredictable weather and pests can damage your plants. On the other hand, Mother Nature rewards you with magnificent plants under optimal conditions.

Important cultivation factors:

  • Lighting: Indispensable for plant growth. Indoor growers use LED or HID lamps, while outdoor growers rely on the sun.
  • Climate: The temperature and humidity must be within the ideal range. Easier to control indoors, outdoors dependent on the weather.
  • Water: A balanced water supply is essential. Too much or too little can be harmful.
  • Nutrients: Cannabis plants are hungry for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, especially during the growth and flowering phase.
  • Pruning techniques: Targeted pruning promotes healthy growth and can increase yield.

Whichever method you choose, good preparation and an understanding of your plants' needs are the keys to success.

Kleine Cannabisplfanze in einem Aufzuchtszelts

Equipment and costs

To grow cannabis successfully, you will need a range of tools and equipment, the extent of which will depend heavily on your growing environment - whether indoors(indoor) oroutdoors (outdoor). When growing indoors, lighting systems such as LED lamps are crucial to ensure the right light spectrum for plant growth. Ventilation systems are also important to ensure sufficient air circulation and humidity control. For an optimal environment, a grow tent may also be required to control and optimize conditions.

In contrast, outdoor cultivation requires less equipment as the plants benefit from natural light sources. Nevertheless, pesticides may be necessary to protect the plants from insects and diseases, especially in humid or warm climates.

The initial investment for indoor growing can be considerable, often ranging from a few hundred to a thousand euros, depending on the quality and amount of equipment used. These costs often include the purchase of lighting, ventilation, tents and, if necessary, irrigation systems and other equipment to control environmental conditions.

Ongoing costs also need to be considered and include electricity consumption for lighting and climate control, regular supplies of water, nutrients and soil. These costs can add up over time and should be factored into the overall cannabis growing budget.

In both cases - indoor or outdoor - careful planning of equipment and associated costs is crucial to ensure an efficient and successful grow.

The cultivation cycle

Phase Cultivation description Important notes
Selection of seeds Choose between feminized, autoflowering or regular seeds. The decision influences the entire cultivation cycle.
Germination Allow the seeds to germinate until the first roots are visible. Moisture and warmth are crucial for successful germination.
Growth phase Provide sufficient light, water and nutrients for the plants to grow. The vegetative phase requires long periods of light (18-24 hours).
Flowering phase Shorter periods of light initiate the flowering and development of the flowers. The flowering phase is often initiated with 12 hours of light/12 hours of darkness.
Harvest Harvest when the trichomes are ripe. Time of harvest influences effect and taste.
Drying Dry the harvested flowers slowly. Even drying prevents mold growth.
Curing Cure the dried flowers to improve flavor and potency. Curing under controlled conditions improves quality.


Cannabis cultivation is gaining popularity worldwide, driven by both increasing legalization and growing interest and openness towards the plant. In Germany and elsewhere, more and more people are exploring the possibilities of cultivation, whether for health reasons, for personal use or out of sheer curiosity. This article offers a comprehensive insight into the world of cannabis cultivation, from the basics to legal aspects and practical tips.

The basics of cannabis cultivation are carefully explained, from choosing the right strain to the different growing techniques for indoor and outdoor conditions. An in-depth look at the different cannabis strains - indica, sativa and hybrid - allows growers to make better decisions and refine their growing expectations.

The legal framework in Germany is also covered, in particular the significant change from April 2024 that legalizes private cultivation for personal use. This move opens up new opportunities for individual growers while helping to curb the black market and strengthen consumer protection.

The discussion of indoor and outdoor cultivation, including the equipment required and the associated costs, provides an informed overview of the different options and challenges that growers need to consider when choosing their cultivation method.

Finally, the cannabis growing cycle is described in detail, from seed selection to harvesting and flower finishing. Important hints and tips accompany each step to ensure that growers are well informed and successful.

Overall, this article offers a comprehensive guide for anyone interested in growing cannabis, providing the necessary knowledge and practical skills to successfully immerse themselves in this fascinating world.

Niklas Bergmann, Fachautor

Freut euch auf die Insights von unserem Biochemiker Niklas Bergmann! Mit seinem tiefen Verständnis für alles, was mit Hanf zu tun hat, liefert er euch die neuesten und coolsten Infos direkt in euer Feed. Schnörkellos und klar verpackt er das komplexe Thema Cannabinoide und macht es für euch easy zugänglich. Mit Niklas an der Spitze unseres Wissens-Teams seid ihr immer top informiert.